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Sun, Summer, and The Scholarly Teacher
The Scholarly Teacher Staff Image by Hannah Morgan, Unsplash. Happy Summer to Our Readers! This has been an exciting academic year for The Scholarly Teacher. We received more submissions than ever before and explored wider-ranging topics, from gamification to digital advising to social justice pedagogy. We are excited to offer even more new Scholarly Teacher articles this summer to help you to continue to fine-tune your practice. The fall semester, in turn, will bring renewed opportunities to explore the balance and interaction of onsite and online teaching and learning in equitable and accessible ways. Along the way, though, we ask that you take some time for yourself to take a breath and reflect on your own mental and physical wellness. We encourage you to plan enriching activities and totally restful and restorative time this summer. If writing is part of your rest and restoration over the next few months, we welcome your thoughts! Please contact us at email@example.com or submit your work using our Manuscript Submission Form. Of course, if the opportunities arise, we would love to speak with you in person at an upcoming ITLC Lilly Conference! Have a safe, relaxing, rewarding summer! Thank you for your time and the support you have shown our community through your continued readership and contributions. Best regards, Todd Zakrajsek and The Scholarly Teacher Team Discussion Questions What restorative activities are you looking forward to this summer? How can you connect with colleagues to prepare for the upcoming semester? Reflecting on the past year, what are you most proud of in your faculty work? What new strategy/strategies are you excited to try for Fall 2023? For Further Reading Brekke, T., Bell, R. R., & Johnson, V. (2023, March 9). Breaking bread in communities of learners. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/breaking-bread-in-communities-of- learners Churchill, S., & Rose, R. (2023, May 10). Working smarter: Leveraging digital tools for students. The Scholarly Teacher. advising. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/working-smarter-leveraging-digital- tools-for-student-advising Furigay, M. H., Chellam, N. S., Guron, M., et al. (2022, September 8). Interdisciplinary gamified teaching of critical metals. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/interdisciplinary-gamified-teaching- of-critical-metals Zakrajsek, T. (2021, December 23). Will you still respect me if I am not overwhelmed? The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/will-you-still-respect-me-if-i-am-not- overwhelmed Zakrajsek, T. (2022a, November 3). Moving right along to improve mood and memory. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/moving-right-along-to-improve- mood-and-memory Zakrajsek, T. (2022b, May 3). Maximizing your summer. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/maximizing-your-summer
Success for College Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Community College, Composition View
Roxanna S. Dewey, Glendale Community College Key Statement: As the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder rises, challenges for college students with ASDs may be mitigated through instructional strategies beyond accommodations. Keywords: ASD, Community College, Composition Courses, Student Success Background As a community college composition instructor, previous high school instructor, and parent of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), I have personal and professional experience serving neurodivergent student populations. In some cases, accommodations were enough to support the needs of the student. In others, they simply did not suffice. For example, even with accommodations, a student might experience social and behavioral challenges with placement in a standard sized in-person composition class. Students with ASDs are in all of our first-year composition classes of varying modalities and sizes to include: in-person, hybrid, online, live online, and independent study. A standard sized class is capped at 18 where an independent study would have a student-teacher ratio of 1:1. In situations with unsuccessful placement, students with ASDs may present as agitated and frustrated, indicating difficulty with self-regulation. Once self-regulation is compromised, expecting the student to successfully access the curriculum is an exercise in futility. To work toward a solution in supporting success for students with ASDs in the composition classroom, I have found utilizing a team approach works best. For example, an instructor might, ideally with the student’s permission and buy-in, contact faculty who previously worked with the student, various administrators like the Department Chair and the Dean of Student Affairs, and Disability Resources & Services (DRS). It is not common for parents to be contacted, but I have also found parents, with Family Education Rights and Privacy (FERPA) permission, to be valuable advocates. It is also beneficial for the syllabus, course expectations, and timeline to be shared with students prior to the start of the class. In one instance, I met with the student, the parent, the Dean of Student Affairs, counseling faculty, and DRS to discuss expectations and available support for the class. In this setting, the student, surrounded by those who have already established trust, also unexpectedly revealed struggles in another class due to lessons delivered out of order from the published organization of the textbook. Image from Bianka Van Djik, Pixabay. Prevalence and Presentation ASD is considered a developmental disability and impacts individuals differently, including communication, social interaction, behavior, learning (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022), and executive functioning (e.g., organizing, planning, initiating tasks, and paying attention (Executive Functioning, 2023). Disorders considered a part of the umbrella of ASD according to the DSM-5 include: Asperger’s Disorder, Autistic Disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (Hoffman, 2020). It is also common for ASD to exist as a comorbid diagnosis in combination with anxiety, depression, or ADHD (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The number of individuals diagnosed with an ASD in the United States continues to rise. Currently, 1 in 36 children in the United States is diagnosed (Autism Statistics and Facts, 2023). Though students with ASDs are entering college at higher rates, the completion rate is much lower than neurotypical peers (Sanford et al., 2011). Furthermore, these statistics do not account for students without an official diagnosis. At the college level, due to FERPA, students must be their own advocate by self-identifying and initiating contact with DRS and instructors to begin the extensive process. Unfortunately, at the college level, the team approach is not as standard a practice as it is in the secondary years (e.g., via a 504 plan or an Individualized Education Plan) because IDEA no longer applies to students after high school (Rein, 2022). Challenges Unlike in K-12 settings, students who self-identify are provided accommodations, rather than modifications, per the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which is designed to ensure “equal access” (Differences Between HS and College, 2022). A modification would be something like rewording reading passages in a simpler language or reducing the number of assignments, provided the accommodation does not alter what is being taught (e.g., allowing the student extended time on tests) (DO-IT, 2022). When students with an ASD self-identify, register with DRS, and meet eligibility criteria, they are provided accommodations. According to Gelbar et al. (2015), some recommendations for accommodations include distraction-free testing, extended time for tests, use of a notetaker, and meeting with a DRS counselor. In a current research study, regarding preferred accommodations in composition classes, students preferred books on tape or other recording and extended time for assignments and tests (Dewey, 2023). Accommodations in composition classes are a start; nevertheless, they are simply not enough to holistically meet the needs of the student. For example, students with ASD also indicated feeling depressed and preferred spending time in quiet places on campus (Dewey, 2023). College students with ASDs who may struggle with social emotional, executive function, and study find it beneficial to be presented with more comprehensive support via semi-structured social opportunities; an inclusive and supportive campus from fellow students and faculty; emotional support; and helpful, accessible ancillary services (Gelbar et al., 2015). Beyond Accommodations: Instructional Strategies to Support Success To respond to challenges, in addition to a team approach and DRS accommodations for students with ASDs, the following instructional strategies may support student success in composition classes (see Table 1). Table 1. Instructional Strategies to Support Success. Copyright, Roxanna Dewey, 2023. Summary In conclusion, as the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders continues to rise, challenges for college students with ASDs in composition classes may be mitigated through instructional strategies which provide social emotional, executive function, and study skills in addition to any accommodations that might be requested. Additionally, a proactive team approach may be most beneficial prior to the start of the semester where expectations and strategies for the new semester’s classes are shared and discussed. Keep in mind that all students are different, and even though two students may have the same diagnosis, what may be a best practice for one student may not be a best practice for all students. The goal, stated in Harvey’s 2014 article (as cited in Clauson & McKnight, 2018), is to “identify the needs of students, provide them with direct support, and join them in their advocacy on campus.” Discussion Questions What are your perceptions, awareness, and understanding of ASD? How does that impact your successes and challenges with this neurodivergent student population? How do you support neurodivergent students in your classes? Are accommodations enough? What instructional practices or strategies have been most effective when working with a student with an ASD? Or, if you have not had a chance to work with this population yet, what strategy would you like to have in your toolbox? References Asaro-Saddler, K., Knox, H. M., Meredith, H., & Akhmedjanova, D. (2015). Using technology to support students with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the writing process: A pilot. Reading Rockets. https://www.readingrockets.org/article/using-technology-support-students- autism-spectrum-disorders-writing-process-pilot Autism Statistics and Facts. (2023). Autism Speaks. https://www.autismspeaks.org/autism-statistics-asd Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, March 31). What is autism spectrum disorder? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/facts.html Clauson, C., & McKnight, J. (2018). Welcome to campus: Planning for diversity, inclusion, and equity. Planning for Higher Education, 47(1), 3. https://www.proquest.com/docview/2161040861 Engelbrecht, N. (2022, June 13). Empathic attunement: Catching others' emotions. Embrace Autism. https://embrace-autism.com/empathic-attunement- catching-others-emotions/ Executive functioning. (2023). Autism Speaks. https://www.autismspeaks.org/executive-functioning Dewey, R. (2023). Perceptions of ASDs from community college faculty and perceptions of community college from students with ASDs. [Unpublished manuscript]. Differences between HS and college. (2022). Differences between HS and College | Chapman University. https://www.chapman.edu/students/health-and- safety/disability-services/differences.aspx DO-IT. (2022). What is the difference between accommodation and modification for a student with a disability? Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking, and Technology:| DO-IT. https://www.washington.edu/doit/what-difference- between-accommodation-and-modification-student-disability Gelbar, N., Shefyck, A., & Reichow, B. (2015). A comprehensive survey of current and former college students with autism spectrum disorders. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 88(1), 45–68. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25745374/ Hoffman, M. (2020). Types of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). WebMD https://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/autism-spectrum-disorders Rein, J. (2022). Are there IEPs and 504 plans in college? Understood. https://www.understood.org/articles/en/Are-there-ieps-and-504-plans-in- college Sanford, C., Newman, L., Wagner, M., Cameto, R., Knokey, A.- M., & Shaver, D. (2011). The post-high school outcomes of young adults with disabilities up to 6 years after high school: Key findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2) (NCSER 2011-3004). International. www.nlts2.org/reports About the Author
Working Smarter: Leveraging Digital Tools for Student Advising
Sara Churchill, University of Nebraska at Omaha Erica Rose, University of Nebraska at Omaha Key Statement: Using digital tools in advising helps create efficiencies in communication, information sharing, and time management, which allows more time for building relationships. Keywords: Advising, Relationships, Technology Introduction Advising is important to a college student’s academic success and perceived quality of experience (Hart-Baldridge, 2020). There are some aspects of high-quality advising experiences that carry across disciplines, modalities, and levels. These include building strong relationships, timely communication, staying organized, and effective time management. Academic advising is complex and multifaceted, and yet many faculty advise without much training. Online environments further complicate things, removing opportunities for extemporaneous interactions and information sharing. Navigating technology can be a very challenging aspect of academic advising. And yet, “if institutions also adopt advising structures and processes that leverage technology [they might] provide a more intensive and personalized advising experience” (Kalamkarian et al., 2018, p. 1). In other words, the right technology tools allow an advisor to build relationships, communicate clearly, stay organized, and maximize time. All of this ensures that information is properly disseminated, allowing for a greater focus on relationship development, which is crucial to successful advising. This article will provide ideas on how advisors can strategically use digital tools in conjunction with advising best practices. Photo by wocintechchat, Unsplash. Relationships and Communication Ask a P–12 educator what the most important teacher-controlled factor is to student success and you will likely get the same response: strong relationships help students become successful learners. This concept holds true regardless of the age of the student. In fact, Felten and Lambert (2020) call it the "beating heart of the undergraduate experience" (p. 1). Research consistently shows that relationship-building is essential to creating successful and satisfied candidates. Hart-Baldridge (2020) goes on to say that "the potential for student connection through academic advising holds significant implications for retention and persistence of college students" (p. 10). Advisors use meetings to communicate critical information about the institution, assist students in navigating policies, and offer a full picture of campus support (Hart-Baldridge, 2020). Ultimately, this "institutional communication" empowers students to be independent learners. In order to accomplish this goal, there are both synchronous and asynchronous tools an advisor can use to their advantage. Synchronous Tools Relationship-building often takes place via synchronous digital communication tools like Zoom or Teams. Spending time talking with candidates about their goals and concerns helps students feel supported and combats feelings of isolation as they become aware of themselves as members of a community (Haythornthwaite & Kazmer, as cited in Hrastinski, 2008). Advisors must think carefully about when synchronous communication best serves the interaction. When determining if synchronous communication is preferred, consider whether or not the content of the message is complicated or emotionally charged. Are nonverbal communication cues (body language, voice tone) important? Is spontaneity valuable in the interaction? Asynchronous Tools Communications that contain complex directions or are data-heavy are likely better suited to asynchronous methods. Consider if written documentation is needed for policy purposes or even simply as a point of reference for the student. We have long relied on email, but there are a few strategies that can streamline that process. Email templates save time when creating boilerplate responses, responding to repetitive questions, or sending out mass messages or duplicative announcements. Bulletins can also be sent in a timely manner via email blasts or listservs. Felten and Lambert (2020) discuss the faculty’s digital tools at Brown University, including editable emails for advisors to share containing important deadlines and information. “These customized messages spark in-person follow-up conversations that build stronger, more meaningful relationships between students and their advisors” (p. 122). Utilizing a learning management system (Canvas, Blackboard, etc.) is another effective way to share information that students want and need. Using courses that candidates are already enrolled in or creating a specific advising course allows advisors to reach students with the push of a button. Social media is another viable tool. Being mindful of your target audience and your institution’s social media policy, you may wish to use a service like Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. Both social media and learning management systems also help build community, infusing a human element through pictures, videos, and engagement options. A blend of synchronous and asynchronous strategies is sometimes most effective. Sending paperwork ahead of meetings, and following up with summaries and updates, ensures that real-time interactions remain focused on relationship-building. Organization and Time Management According to Livingstone and Naismith (2018), the time and work that it takes to effectively advise students is a struggle “balancing time and effort” (p. 88), especially for those who have a large advising load or are expected to also handle teaching, research, and service. Digital tools can greatly assist advising mentors in working smarter, not harder. Schedulers, Tasks, and Reminders Agendas can be managed with stand-alone apps like Todoist and Any.do or ecosystem apps like Apple’s Reminders and Calendar and Microsoft’s Outlook Suite. Calendar sign-ups can be an effective way for advisees to set up appointments. You can also create an online form via Google Doc or Sheets or use something like Sign Up Genius or Outlook Calendar. Consider specific planning needs for each event. Scheduling for a series of topical meetings may be better suited to an online signup form, which affords more control over the scheduling block. Advisors scheduling different types of meetings can streamline the process through tools like Calendly and Fantastical, which allow the user to integrate with several platforms like Zoom and Reminders. File Management and Document Sharing Taking the time to organize documents is key. Creating shortcuts to documents, bookmarking folders for consistently used websites, and keeping email archives are all strategies to save time by keeping information easily accessible and searchable. These same strategies can be applied to shareable repositories to make information available to advisees. Create a website, wiki, or develop a course on your learning management system. Even sharing a Google or SharePoint folder effectively distributes documentation. Sending encrypted files or using a service like DocuSign can help safely share important, private documents. These tools eliminate organizing headaches and enhance information accessibility, allowing more energy to be focused on relationship-building. Conclusion The right digital tools and strategies help candidates access information, contribute to functional data management, and ensure a focus on relationship-building. While there are many benefits to using digital tools, ensure that you only select tools that are intuitive, integrate seamlessly, and enhance student interactions. This will provide the best experience for both you and your advisees. Discussion Questions How do you make your advisees feel valued and seen? What are the best digital tools you’ve discovered to assist you in organizing your advising load? What is one way that you can simplify your communication with others? References Felten, P. & Lambert, L. M. (2020). Relationship-rich education: How human connections drive success in college. Johns Hopkins University Press. Hart-Baldridge, H. (2020). Faculty advisor perspectives of academic advising. NACADA Journal, 40(1):10–22. https://doi.org/10.12930/NACADA-18-25 Hrastinski, S. (2008, November 18). Asynchronous and synchronous e-learning. Educause Review. https://er.educause.edu/articles/2008/11/asynchronous- and- synchronous-elearning Kalamkarian, H. S., Boynton, M., Lopez, A. G. (2018, July). Redesigning advising with the help of technology: Early experiences of three institutions. Community College Research Center. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED586059.pdf Livingstone, N., & Naismith, N. (2018). Faculty and undergraduate student perceptions of an integrated mentoring approach. Active Learning in Higher Education, 19(1), 77–92. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469787417723233 About the Authors
Maximizing Your Summer
Todd Zakrajsek, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Key Statement: Your time off deserves the same careful attention and nurturing strategies as the time you devote to the classroom. Maximize your relaxation! Keywords: Maximize, Work-Life Harmony, SMART, Backward Planning Introduction I love just about everything there is about teaching, but I still feel a bit of a lift with the approach of the last week of the spring semester, turning in grades and securing regalia for graduation. The feeling of endless academic obligations begins to melt away, and the thought of doing what we want blossoms. Don't get me wrong—I live to work with learners, enjoy interacting with my colleagues, and am proud of all that I complete throughout the academic year. All that said, the months of heavy cognitive load, balancing round-the-clock personal and professional commitments, being sleep-deprived, and meetings, so many meetings. . . . Given all we do during the year, it's understandable we might think happily of summer months. I’ve been happily teaching for 40 years, which means I have looked forward to summer 40 times. Not all 40 summers have been used well. Leaving the summer to chance rarely worked out well for me. Feeling that there is ample time, it is easy to lose track of those fleeting months. We end up returning to another fall and quickly feeling the pressures of being just as overwhelmed as we were in the spring. Although I have mismanaged summers, I now do a much better job planning for my summer months to make the most of that precious time for restoration and growth. . The author connecting with colleagues in Fairbanks, Alaska. Left to right - author, Elizabeth Fleagle, and Larry Roberts © Todd Zakrajsek. Be SMART About Your Summer Planning: Primary Goals and Secondary Outcomes One option is to set a series of SMART goals, which have been used for decades across all areas of higher education (Wingert & Persky, 2022). As you likely know, SMART stands for Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Timely. Pair the concept of SMART goals, or outcomes, with backward design (Wiggins & McTigh, 2005), and you have a solid start. Consider, in broad strokes, what you want to happen by the end of the summer, and then set a series of SMART outcomes. You likely already have general plans in place. Once you have crystallized your big goals, try to identify secondary items you hope to achieve as part of your big goals. I suggest taking a moment and writing out what you hope to get from your intended summer activities, whether decompressing, traveling, writing up a study, or teaching a summer course. The following examples are provided to stimulate your thinking. The list is not exhaustive; you might choose to focus more on work or leisure. There are also no wrong choices as long as you achieve what you hope to achieve and feel that you maximized your summer. Travel Many individuals travel over the summer. I love to travel and have seen many places domestically and abroad. However, only recently have I become a SMARTer traveler. Think about why you desire to travel. Is it to learn about a specific culture? Visit friends/family? Work on a research project? In considering your primary desired outcome, brainstorm some secondary outcomes that might be achieved with minimal extra work. For example, if you plan to spend time with friends in another country, consider what options might also exist for visiting faculty members in your discipline at a university near where you will be going. With a small amount of planning, you may be able to connect with a faculty member and arrange a short visit and perhaps a tour of their university. They may very much enjoy the opportunity to speak with you, and you certainly will! When visiting an area, I now look for museums, cultural events, activities, and other places of interest in addition to my primary goal. Whenever traveling, research on a broad scale the things you like to do and what might be available in the area at the time you are there. Projects (Scholarly or Personal) Summer is an ideal time to work on a substantial project you did not have time to tackle during classes. Map out carefully and specifically what you expect to accomplish—to write and submit two articles or to remodel the downstairs bathroom, rather than “work on some writing” or “redo the house.” Look also to activities that augment your scholarly work, in particular (more about pairing later). Set up some meetings with colleagues with expertise in the area you are working to brainstorm about the topic. This can set up future projects and help you with the one you are working on. Perhaps plan to meet weekly for an hour to talk about progress and help each other think through challenges in a project. You might also read a few books related to your subject area; plan to spend a bit of that reading time in a hammock or by a local beach. Be sure to make space for activities to relax and get away for a bit. Believe it or not, that will help increase the success of your big project goal. Relaxation and Mental Health The past few years have been extremely hard on me, as I am sure they also have on you. Even in a “good” year, though, working in higher education is, well, a lot of work. If your goal is to get away from academic work completely and to relax, it may be helpful to think a bit about maximizing your opportunities for decompressing, rather than simply to “relax.” For example, you may find great value in hiking. Maybe you have planned a trip to an area with fantastic hiking opportunities this summer (I am partial to Utah, the Pacific Northwest, and the Smokey Mountains). In planning to go hiking, it is easy to forget that some activities pair well with hiking. Camping, obviously, but you may also enjoy learning more about the area you will be hiking. Build a trip; check out small, local museums; and plan to try a restaurant or two that are local favorites. Maybe you love looking at architecture, stained glass, or new-to-you grocery stores. I went through a museum in Anchorage, Alaska, with an individual who had lived in the area her entire life. It was a fantastic experience. Hiking (and associated activities) is only one example. Whatever you look forward to doing this summer to relax, look for secondary possibilities in the area where you will be, whether it’s a trip or your own backyard. Everywhere you go, there are likely a plethora of opportunities. Consider additional things you really enjoy that are not normally doable during the hectic school year. Pairing pleasant activities will help to maximize however you plan to relax (e.g., DBTselfhelp.com) and do plan to relax! Conclusion Be careful with the assumption that over the summer, without any planning, you will relax, finish some articles that are overdue, or travel. I have done that too many times, and I wish I had made better use of those super valuable months. When work obligations slow, or even stop, for a few months, be sure to use that time to mindfully do what is best for you. You will have a limited number of summers, and it is a shame to waste any of them. Discuss plans with colleagues and ask them about potential secondary possibilities. Review what you hope to have happen over the summer and jot down some desired outcomes to make those things happen, so that when classes resume in the fall you will have maximized your summer. Discussion Questions What is a primary goal you have for this summer? What is it you most want to do? Explain why this is your primary goal. What do you hope to achieve from accomplishing this goal? Describe three secondary goals and why you chose these. References Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design (2nd ed.). Pearson. Wingert, M., & Persky, A. M. (2017). A practical review of mastery learning.
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 86(10), 8906. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8906 Additional Resources DBTSelfHelp.com. (2023). https://dbtselfhelp.com/ Murti, L., & Ringenbach K. (2018, February 27). Creating work-life balance: Using personal reflection to guide personal and professional growth. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/work-life-balance-using- personal-reflection Zakrajsek, T. (2019, October 9). Cognitive load: A fundamental key to student learning. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/cognitive-load-a-fundamental-key-to- student-learning Zakrajsek, T. (2022, November 3). Moving right along to improve mood and memory. The Scholarly Teacher. https://www.scholarlyteacher.com/post/moving-right-along-to-improve- mood-and-memory About the Author
Feedback or Feedforward? It’s All About the Timing
Jennifer Lemke, University of Nebraska at Omaha Chris Wilcoxen, University of Nebraska at Omaha Jeni Langfeldt, University of Nebraska at Omaha Key Statement: This article explores feedback structures that contribute to students' understanding and performance. Keywords: Feedback, Timing, Peer Feedback Background As educators, an expectation is to provide feedback to students. This includes any information provided to learners about their performance and understanding of an assignment, task, or activity (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). Feedback is meant to reduce the discrepancy between the desired outcomes and student performance (Hattie and Timperley, 2007) and provide students with immediate, corrective, and specific opportunities for ongoing improvement (Scheeler et al., 2004). Feedback allows students to identify strengths and areas of growth, gain understanding of complex professional methods, and develop a repertoire of strategies to enhance their performance (Nicol & Macfarlane-Dick, 2006). One important element of feedback constantly overlooked is the time frame in which it is provided. If we want to shape students’ understanding and provide the opportunity for them to apply feedback in meaningful ways, we as the instructors must consider if the timing of the feedback facilitates these outcomes. In surveys reporting student satisfaction over the past twenty years, the desire for feedback has been one of the most prevalent among students (Carroll, 2014; Winstone & Carless, 2020). If feedback is not provided within an appropriate time frame, it's often viewed as an output of the instructor, an information-giving process to the student, rather than a tool meant to engage the student in examining and enhancing their learning and overall performance. Photo by Saffu. Unsplash. Feedback Timing Immediate feedback, also known as feedforward, refers to when the instructor provides corrective feedback and/or modeling when a problem is noted (Scheeler et al., 2009), rather than the traditional method of waiting until a task is complete (i.e., deferred feedback). Scheeler et al. (2004) found that “targeted teaching behaviors were acquired faster and more efficiently when feedback was immediate” (p. 403). Immediate feedback also reduced the likelihood of students continuing an ineffective practice. This approach provides the learner with information and support that prevents them from making the same mistakes in the future. Feedforward provides recommendations in a way that “facilitates its application to future work” (Skinner et al., 2022, p. 56), rather than receiving guidance after a process is complete or an assignment is graded. So what feedforward practices can we implement that provide students with immediate, corrective, and specific opportunities to enhance their performance (Scheeler et al., 2004), but that also feel manageable to the time constraints and demands many faculty face? Here are two strategies to consider as you look to embed practices that contribute to enhancing students’ understanding and performance. Staggered Feedback We all know how overwhelming it can be when students are turning in an assignment. The pressure builds to ensure our feedback, or feedforward, is both timely and meaningful. A question we might consider is, “Why are all assignments due at once?” Creating student groups with staggered assignment due dates throughout the semester allows for feedback to be broken into more manageable chunks. allotting more time to provide students with high-quality feedback close to or immediately following the assignment due dates. Staggering groups can also be structured to create checkpoints while the work is in progress where the feedback highlights strengths and areas of growth and assists students in making revisions before submitting their final work. As a bonus, student groups and staggered due dates can also be a way instructors respond to students’ needs and facilitate a student-centered environment. Allowing students to pick their groups and deadlines provides more flexibility and opportunities for them to manage their schedules and work to their capacity. Students are often functioning under significant personal and professional time constraints, so providing options that are responsive to students’ needs will likely result in higher levels of engagement and achievement. Tell, Ask, Give (TAG) As we foster opportunities for student voice and choice in the classroom, Tell, Ask, Give (TAG) is another feedforward approach. The TAG strategy provides a framework for students to give and receive quality, immediate feedback. The Tell component of this strategy requires students to provide positive feedback and affirm the work that has been completed. The Ask component encourages students to ask questions and delve deeper into the material being discussed. Finally, the Give component of this strategy encourages students to provide constructive feedback and suggestions for how a piece of work could be improved. See Image 1. Image 1. TAG! Sentence Starters. This peer-centered activity is beneficial for both students and instructors. It fosters a culture of collaboration, promotes critical thinking, and increases students’ understanding of course content. TAG can be succinct or contain more depth and breadth. If you are looking for students to provide specific information, you can modify TAG to include longer prompts to help guide student comments based on the course rubric. For example, TAG can provide verbal feedback immediately after presentations. Another option would be to have students exchange work (as a formative check) and provide written feedback in the same class session to consider in finalizing the assignment. Through the use of language frames, TAG provides students the opportunity to give and receive quality feedback in either written or discussion form and instructors more time to model, clarify, and address misconceptions. Conclusion Feedback is most impactful when it occurs near, or even during, what is being evaluated. Providing feedback as a qualitative checkpoint gives learners a chance to learn before being evaluated and mold their best possible final product. Allowing learners to provide feedback to their peers helps them strengthen critical thinking and understand course content on multiple levels. And in both staggered feedback and TAG, instructors are freed up to provide more detailed feedback to encourage learner growth. Discussion Questions When do you use deferred versus immediate feedback? Which have you found impacts learning more in a given situation and why? Are you currently utilizing a feedback or feedforward approach? What new feedforward practice can you implement today that will have a direct impact on students’ understanding and performance? References Carroll, D. (2014). Graduate Course Experience 2013: A Report on the Course Experience Perceptions of Recent Graduates. Melbourne: Graduate Careers Australia. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81–112. https://doi.org/10.3102/003465430298487 Nicol, D. J,. & Macfarlane-Dick, D. (2006). Formative assessment and self-regulated learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199–218. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070600572090 Scheeler, M. C., Ruhl, K. L., & McAfee, J. K. (2004). Providing performance feedback to teachers: A review. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 27(4), 396–407. https://doi.org/10.1177/0888406404027004 Scheeler, M. C., Bruno, K., Grubb, E., & Seavey, T. L. (2009). Generalizing teaching techniques from university to K-12 classrooms: Teaching preservice teachers to use what they learn. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18, 189–210. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10864-009-9088-3 Skinner, D., Gjerde, K. P., Padgett, M. Y. (2022). Importance of goal and feedback orientation in determining feedback effectiveness. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 22(3), 55–75. https://doi.org/10.14434/josotl.v22i3.31866 About the Authors
Engaging Students in Faculty Research
Katie Morales, Tanner Health System School of Nursing, University of West Georgia Modupe Adewuyi, WellStar School of Nursing, Kennesaw State University Cindy Johnson, Tanner Health System School of Nursing, University of West Georgia Key Statement: Engaging students in faculty research is a high-impact practice that provides students opportunities to engage with faculty outside a course in a mentoring relationship, to respond to constructive feedback, to network with professionals in a work experience, and to market themselves for employment or graduate schools. Keywords: Student Research, Experiential Learning, High-Impact Practice Introduction We adapted and implemented high-impact practices (HIPs) to engage undergraduate and graduate students in faculty research based on the principles of adult learning theory (Knowles, 1990) and cognitive learning theory (Sincero, 2011). High-impact practices are an active pedagogy to promote deep learning through experiential learning, offering meaningful educational benefits and ensuring student success (American Association of Colleges and Universities ([AAC&U], 2022). High-impact practices can include capstone projects, supervised research, collaborative assignments, internships, and service-based learning experiences to explore diverse cultures. Specifically, student participation in faculty supervised research activities is impactful (Popescu et al., 2019; Schwartz et al., 2018), stimulating academic inquiry and promoting interdisciplinary learning, career development, cultural awareness, leadership, and professional and intellectual skills. As an experiential learning activity, students learn by doing and reflecting as they connect classroom content to learning activities and gain insight into career possibilities after graduation (Schwarz, 2018). Photo by ThisisEngineering RAEng. Unsplash. The Strategy First, as nursing faculty at two large public universities and one private liberal arts college in the Southeast United States, we recruited students who enjoyed evidence-based practice classes for informal mentoring and/or interested students enrolled in a formal First Year Scholars Program to assist in Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved faculty research projects. See Table 1 for our student demographics. To create a safe learning environment, all student participation was voluntary and could be withdrawn at any time without penalty. No course grade was associated with participation, and we were not in a position to grade participating students. No incentives were provided for students receiving informal mentoring and no additional incentive was provided to students enrolled in the First Year Scholars program other than the associated stipend from the sponsoring university. To comply with IRB requirements, all student participants completed Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) training before assisting in any studies and could not view identifiable data in any study. Experiential Learning Activities Secondly, the undergraduate and graduate students assisted with five different research projects in a variety of ways. Undergraduate students pilot-tested Qualtrics surveys (providing rich preliminary feedback), scheduled qualitative interviews, and designed recruitment flyers. The students as partners framework (Matthews, 2018) guided students and faculty as undergraduate students shared innovative ideas such as incorporating a QR code in the recruitment flyer and using Otter.ai virtual transcription service for the qualitative interviews. The professional networking and collaboration led to one undergraduate student contributing to a three-volume nursing textbook. The undergraduate students enrolled in the First Year Scholars program conducted secondary data analysis and presented a poster at the university’s Scholarship Symposium. The graduate student performed a literature search based on the search terms provided by us and drafted a matrix table of the selected studies. We co-authored a systematic literature review with the graduate student which was published in a peer reviewed journal. Reflections In the final step, students and faculty reflected on our experiences. Students described participation as a valuable learning opportunity, making them more competitive in the job or higher education markets. Students applied theoretical research knowledge and developed related skills. Other identified benefits included building a student portfolio, presenting professionally, and improving scholarly writing skills. Students also recognized they participated in a pivotal moment of history as several of the studies focused on the impact of COVID-19. Students offered the following comments regarding the benefits of participation “...the dementia care study has been a wonderful experience to be able to have access to the data and being able to analyze it as I see fit and having someone to talk to about the data and clear up things I may be confused on.” Another student commented, “...the dementia care study has been a good learning experience and is something I can use to help with furthering my education.” Students reflected on the value of the experience, saying participating in the study “...gave me many things to reflect on and really think about.” The students valued experiential learning, commenting, “...out-of-the-classroom experience added to my learning and has given me an edge over the average nursing student.” The students found the experience helped them build a relationship with a professional network of caring faculty. One student observed, “Having a mentor who is incredibly involved, concerned, and understanding has made being a part of this research team a vast experience. I have learned that I am in a space where it is acceptable to make mistakes as long as we grow from them.” Another student appreciated the networking opportunities, saying, “I was able to connect with professors and students from another college which adds to my professional development.” We valued partnering with students and building mentoring relationships. This allowed us to build professional portfolios and increase our professional networking. Inclusion of students in faculty research may be advantageous when writing grants or submitting publications. Challenges The students identified challenges associated with participation in the project, such as increased work and time burdens, making it difficult to maintain good academic standing requirements as evidenced by the attrition of one student. We (faculty) identified the following challenges: increased workload, time burdens and student attrition. Conclusion Faculty interested in engaging students in research may consider the following options: participating in the research day activities on campus, serving on honors thesis committees and/or the undergraduate research committee, and encouraging students to participate in a journal club or present a poster at research day offered at most state capitols. Additionally, most campuses offer some type of student research assistant programs to reimburse students or fund projects based on their areas of research interest. If the campus does not offer these activities, faculty could consider organizing them. In conclusion, all agreed the benefits of including students in faculty research outweighed any additional burden for faculty and/or students. Discussion Questions Considering your student demographics, how can you promote diversity and inclusion in research? See Table 1 for our student demographics. Considering your current workload, what are the benefits of engaging students in research? What are the challenges of engaging students in research? Considering your course schedule and research projects, what ideas do you have to engage students in research? References American Association of Colleges and Universities. (2022). High-Impact Practices. https://www.aacu.org/trending-topics/high-impact Knowles, M. (1990). The adult learner. A neglected species (4th ed.). Gulf Publishing. Popescu, D., Roibu, H., Abagiu, M., Popescu, R., Popescu, L., & Petrisor, A. (2019). Research as a part of education - A case study of engaging students in research activities. 2019 29th Annual Conference of the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering (EAEEIE), p. 1–7. Schwartz, B. M., Gregg, V. R., & McKee, M. (2018). Conversations about careers: Engaging students in and out of the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 45(1), 50–59. https://doi.org/10.1177/0098628317745247 Sincero, S. (2011). Cognitive Learning Theory. Explorable. https://explorable.com/cognitive-learning-theory Table 1. Demographics
Leveraging Social Cognition to Improve Student Learning
Todd Zakrajsek, ITLC Lilly Conferences on Evidence-Based Teaching and Learning Key Statement: Self-efficacy and self-regulation are social processes that are critical for successful learning. Keywords: Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation, Social Cognition, Success Introduction Although “brain-based” learning has captured the attention of educators for the past two decades, much of what has been discussed and implemented would fit much better into the areas of cognitive and social psychology. How we think about learning and what we think about our ability to learn have a tremendous impact on what we learn, how fast we learn, and the extent to which we recall what we learn. Many students would benefit from structured and specific guidance in how cognitive and social factors impact their learning. At the very least we should make learners aware that such factors exist. Two important areas that could serve as a starting point of such discussions are self-efficacy and self-regulation. Photo by Prateek Katyla. Unsplash. Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is the belief that we can successfully complete a desired task (Akhtar, 2008). If a person does not believe they can achieve something, they are rarely successful in doing so. Effective coaches and teachers devote time to convincing students they are capable of amazing levels of performance, often at levels students had not thought themselves capable of achieving. There are relatively easy ways for you to positively impact your students’ level of self-efficacy. Albert Bandura (1977), the psychologist who coined the term, noted four factors affecting self-efficacy. The first, and most important, factor in setting a level of self-efficacy is prior experience. Successes cause increased self-efficacy, and failures cause decreases. If a student takes a challenging course and does well in the course, their self-efficacy for taking any similar challenging course increases; they feel confident in themselves and their ability to learn and perform at that level. However, when a student fails an exam or an entire course, it may reduce self-efficacy for any future course in that area, or course from that instructor, or even at that school. When we fail, we look for a reason we fail and then often lose self-efficacy relative to that reason. Failing the first exam in a course may well lead a student to question their ability to successfully complete the course. That is why “weed-out courses” are typically effective in dropping enrollment. That which results in failure does not need to be related to the ability of the student in order to reduce their self-efficacy—they just need to fail. An unreasonably challenging first exam or selecting a very challenging textbook is often, unfortunately, very effective in lowering self-efficacy. Second, modeling can impact self-efficacy. When a person sees someone succeed, self-efficacy rises. Conversely, witnessing a failure can lower self-efficacy. The impact is largest if the observer relates to the person being observed. If a person who you consider to be like you fails a test in your class, your self-efficacy takes a hit. A third factor is social persuasion. Social persuasion happens when a person tells you they believe you can do something (increased self-efficacy) or that they think you cannot succeed (decreased self-efficacy). This direct encouragement or discouragement is particularly impactful if the learner respects the opinion of the person providing feedback. As a faculty member, anything you say to a student has the potential to impact their self-efficacy. You can boost self-efficacy, and as a result potential success, simply by saying, “Based on the impressive work you have produced thus far in this class, I know you can do this.” The fourth and final factor is the psychological interpretation of a physiological response to a situation. If a student is feeling anxious just before a big presentation and thinks, “I bet this is how football players feel just before a big game. I’m nervous, but prepared, and psyched up to do well,” then their self-efficacy will increase. If, however, they think, “Why am I so nervous? I must not know the material as well as I should,” their self-efficacy will likely drop. You can frame physical responses in a positive way to influence self-efficacy. On the day of a big exam say, “I often got nervous before a big exam, but it is also exciting when you see what you can do.” Self-efficacy is an important part of learning that is established and maintained by how we interpret the world around us and the behaviors of others as a comparison. This is all social psychology and social cognition, and it has a large impact on learning. Whereas self-efficacy was the belief in one’s ability to successfully complete a goal the concept of self-regulation pertains to a strategy for achieving a goal. They are certainly interrelated concepts, but the distinction is important. Self-Regulation Self-regulation is essentially controlling oneself (see The Scholarly Teacher's recent Buzzword; Zakrajsek & Nilson, 2023;). This is particularly important for first-year students who, perhaps for the first time in their life, have full control over what they do. Faced with making their own choices, college students will, with varying degrees of success, regulate their own behavior. It is the foundation for doing what needs to be done rather than what one wants to do. Baumeister (2014) identified four components to self-regulation: standards of desirable behavior, motivation to meet standards, monitoring situations and thoughts that occur just before a standard is broken, and willpower. A student may feel like skipping a class, but go because they know it will help them to learn critical aspects of the content. Some students skip assignments that are worth just a few points, because they don’t realize the importance of completing all work. There are many resources to assist students with developing self-regulation, and as a faculty member, there are things you can do to help students to make wise choices. One example to help students develop a stronger level of self-regulation is for you to be a good role model. If you expect students to turn papers in on time, make sure you return graded papers when promised. Be open to change. Check in with the class periodically; if learners have a good suggestion for improving the class, give it some consideration. Keep calm in class when frustrated to model self-regulation of emotion. Create many low-stakes assignments rather than one or two high-stakes exams or papers. Create a community of learners that support one another. Also, let students know that you encourage them to ask you for assistance if they become frustrated with the course. Finally, note that making healthy food choices and exercising regularly helps maintain a positive affect. Summary Helping students better understand the social processes that impact their learning will help them to do better in your courses and every course after. There is little in education that will have a larger impact on students than how they see themselves. Unfortunately, far too many students, and faculty, do not know about this critical area, and therefore do not know of the potential impact, both positive and, unfortunately, negative. Discussion Questions Think of something for which you have very high self-efficacy and something for which your self-efficacy is relatively low. For each, why do you think your self-efficacy is what it is? Describe one way that you can increase the self-efficacy of the students in your course within the next few weeks. What is one behavior you can model for students to help them improve in the area of self-regulation? Describe what you would do, what you would tell students about what you are doing, and your desired student outcome. References Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.
Psychological Review, 84(2): 191–215. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.84.2.191 Baumeister, R. F. (2014). Self-regulation, ego depletion, and inhibition. Neuropsychologia, 65, 313–319. https://doi.org10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.08.012 Zakrajsek, T., & Nilson, L. (2023). Teaching at its best, 5th ed. Jossey-Bass.
DEI: Informing the Implicit to Create the Explicit in Classroom Culture
Karen Blaha, University of St. Francis Joyce Kraus, University of St. Francis Key Statement: DEI: Creating a Classroom Culture Keywords: Diversity, Instructional Practices, Classroom Culture Introduction Inclusive classrooms and equitable instructional practices have been a subject of discussion for several years, particularly within higher learning institutions. The diversity and multicultural nature of today’s college classroom calls for use of culturally responsive practices to improve student engagement and learning (Mohammad & Nordin, 2017). But what does this look like in the higher education classroom? Successful implementation of these practices involves more than a few teaching strategies. Pedagogical leadership must balance the validation of students’ cultural socialization and prior experiences (Gay, 2018), with the creation of a sense of belonging and academic discourse that is personally meaningful to participants (Garrison, 2012). Therefore, faculty are called upon to consider implicit approaches to designing dynamic learning environments that foster open discourse with diverse and multicultural audiences. The result will be faculty who enhance their self-awareness and engage in implementing culturally responsive teaching strategies, finding a greater sense of community, enhanced learning, and student engagement in their classroom. Education and social work are two examples of fields where the teacher’s role more routinely includes consideration of diversity and inclusivity in creating classroom dynamics. Faculty as Facilitator Creation of an inclusive classroom is arguably achieved in any discipline from a faculty-as-facilitator approach. Rooted in the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework’s teaching presence, faculty leadership in the classroom must include creating a sense of belonging and academic discourse that is personally meaningful to participants (Garrison, 2012). Faculty attend to the implicit content of equity and inclusion through their own preparation as facilitator of learning. First, faculty consider teaching presence, which calls upon the teacher to manage the direction of both social and cognitive factors in the learning environment in addition to any challenges (Garrison et al., 2010; Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007; Swan et al., 2009). By creating space for discourse where dialogue within the classroom is coercion and intimidation free and facilitated by faculty who collaborate with students to achieve academic goals, faculty invite participants to engage in mutual learning. Second, faculty as the knowledgeable facilitator enhance their understanding of diversity in order to engage with students. They take the time to recognize their own intersectionality and position relative to power and privilege and make space in the learning environment for the resulting nuances. Third, and just as importantly, faculty assess the diversity and intersectionality among their students through active information seeking and observation. This step calls upon the teacher to manage the direction of both social and cognitive factors in the learning environment in addition to any challenges (Garrison et al., 2010; Swan et al., 2009; Garrison & Arbaugh, 2007). According to Singleton (2015), the four elements of creating space for courageous dialogue are to stay engaged, experience discomfort, speak your truth, expect and accept non-closure. From a teaching presence perspective, rather than identifying an unsolvable problem, faculty-as-facilitator consider the dynamic of their role, nuances among students, and how they manage diversity of students and themselves (Garrison, 2012). Learning activities that allow participants to make connections become an essential piece in developing classroom culture. Image by Hans-Peter Gauster. Unsplash. Engaging the Brain and Instructional Practices Practices that support the facilitation and design of classroom culture are those which utilize explicit practices that allow students to reflect on previous background experiences, share perspectives with one another, and support cognitive development (Blaha, 2022; Muniz, 2020). Research in the field of educational neuroscience has demonstrated that optimal learning occurs not only when students feel a sense of belonging, but also when the brain is actively engaged in cognitively challenging tasks the learner views as relevant (Osaka et al., 2013). How can instructors engage the brain and prime it for new learning? First, they should consider the element of novelty. Novelty, the element of surprise related to an event (Ranganath & Ranier, 2003), causes the brain to experience a flurry of neural activity (Schomaker & Meeter, 2015), and has been found to impact learners’ motivation, attention, and processing of information (Barto et al., 2013). When novelty is paired with students’ individual prior knowledge and experiences, learning becomes more concrete and relevant (Dong et al., 2020). Scaffolding new learning and providing students time to organize the novel information further leverages the new learning (Gluck et al., 2013), and provides the brain time to build relationships between the new learning and previous learning. Second, instructors need to ensure the classroom is an active learning environment. Active learning encompasses timely, actionable feedback and addresses different learning styles with various opportunities to think about, talk about, and process course material. Active learning environments also promote student-to-student and instructor-to-student interactions, which leverages the brain’s need to connect with others in a community and minimize perceived social threats (Hammond, 2018). Practices such as Joint Production or Instructional Conversations, as outlined by the Center for Research, Diversity, and Excellence (University of Hawaii , 2020), allow the teacher to act as facilitator while students share perceptions, points of view through discussions, and complete shared tasks that connect new learning to previous learning. Other activities, such as think-pair-share, case studies, and cooperative groups, provide opportunities for all students to share their perspectives, while also reflecting on their own learning (Instructional Design Team, 2020). When planning these activities, instructors should consider the activity’s level of complexity and how this supports the learning objectives. Instructors should also consider how to organize students into various groups to support interactions, how to ensure all students are included in the conversations/tasks, and how the teacher will assess students’ understanding while facilitating the activities (Instructional Design Team, 2020; University of Hawaii, 2022). Conclusion It is important to remember that creating an inclusive and equitable learning environment is a multi-step process that begins with instructor reflection. Before instructors can create a classroom environment and instruction that is inclusive and equitable, they must first engage in self-reflection on their own intersectionality and position within power structures, and how this influences their current instructional practices. When the authors explored faculty perspectives of culturally responsive practices at their own university via four in-person presentations to multidisciplinary participants, the authors learned that the use of inclusive and culturally responsive teaching might sometimes be one-dimensional. Participants were focused mainly on classroom discussions rather than designing both implicit and explicit approaches to the learning environment. During reflections at the conclusion of each university session, participating faculty noted their own “ah-ha” moments, such as, culturally responsive practices include opportunities for students to connect novice information to previous learning experiences. Participating faculty also noted that such practices implement cognitive supports so each student is successful with content. The authors also found these reflections echoed during a recent Lilly Conference session. During the Lilly Conference session, participants noted that inclusive practices allow students to make connections between content and lived experiences, as well as creating a brave space for shared learning. In order to create a classroom culture that is inclusive and supports equitable practices, faculty must be provided the tools and resources to understand why culturally responsive teaching matters, how to implement specific strategies, and what resources are available to continue their efforts. Discussion Questions How do the intersectionalities of faculty and students impact the learning environment? How can you provide opportunities for students to connect background experiences to new learning? How can you envision utilizing some of the culturally responsive practices in your own classroom? References Barto A., Mirolli M., & Baldassarre, G. (2013). Novelty or surprise? Frontiers in Psychology, 11(4), 907. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00907 Blaha, K. (2022). Culturally responsive practices in our teacher education programs. Voices for Educational Equity, 18(2), 34–38. https://center4success.com/wpcon tent/uploads/2022/10/Voices-for- Educational-Equity-182-August-2022-Diversity-Equity-and-Inclusion-DEI-in- an-Era-of-Racial-Reckoning-2.pdf Dong, A., Jong, M. S., & King, R. B. (2020). How does prior knowledge influence learning engagement? The mediating roles of cognitive load and help- seeking. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 591203. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.591203 Garrison, D. R., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2007). Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. The Internet and Higher Education, 10(3), 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2007.04.001 Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2010). The first decade of the community of inquiry framework: A retrospective. The Internet and Higher Education, 13(1–2), 5–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc.2009.10.003 Garrison, D. R. (2012). Theoretical foundations and epistemological insights of the community of inquiry. In Z. Akyol & D. Randy Garrison (Eds.), Theoretical framework, research and practice (pp. 1–11). IGI Global. Gluck, M. A., Mercado, E., & Myers, C. (2013). Learning and memory: From brain to behavior (2nd ed.). Worth Publishers. Hammond, Z. L. (2018). Culturally responsive teaching and the brain: Promoting authentic engagement and rigor among culturally and linguistically diverse students. Corwin Press Instructional Design Team. (2020). Active learning: Creating excitement online. Digital Learning Blog. Florida Gulf Coast University. https://www.fgcu.edu/digitallearning/digital-learning-blog/2020-02-active- learning-online Muniz, J. (2020). Culturally responsive teaching: A reflection guide. New America. Osaka, M., Yaoi, K., Minamoto, T., & Osaka, N. (2013). When do negative and positive emotions modulate working memory performance? Scientific Reports, 3(1), 1375. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep01375 Ranganath, C., & Rainer, G. (2003). Neural mechanisms for detecting and remembering novel events. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, 4(3), 193–202. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1052 Schomaker, J., & Meeter, M. (2015). Short- and long-lasting consequences of novelty, deviance and surprise on brain and cognition. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 55, 268–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.05.002 Singleton, G. (2015). Courageous conversations about race: A field guide for achieving equity in schools (2nd ed.). Corwin. University of Hawaii. (2022). The CREDE Standards. Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence. https://manoa.hawaii.edu/coe/crede/
Write Your Teaching Philosophy Statement
Marina Smitherman, Dalton State College Key Statement: Use your teaching philosophy statement to reflect on, reevaluate, and reinforce your commitment to your students and your professional goals. Keywords: Teaching Philosophy, Framework, Self-Reflection Introduction Without reflection, we often fail to fully realize who we are and what we most value. Sans this information, it is challenging to know the way forward in our efforts to become better educators. An intentional, well-written teaching philosophy is a powerful means to guide what you do in your classroom and to share your approach with those making decisions regarding issues such as promotion and tenure (Caukin & Brinthaupt, 2017). Photo by Dmitriy Belenovsky. Unsplash. Framework Purpose and Passion in Teaching To get started, write out five sentences beginning with “I believe…” (Caukin & Brinthaupt, 2017). Write out concrete examples of your life and experience that support what you believe. Consider your identity as a faculty member teaching in higher education. Why do you choose to teach and what do you enjoy about teaching? Making a deliberate connection in your philosophy to your purpose and passion shows that you have reflected on your motivating factors. If you are aware of them, you can safely assume your students are as well. For inspiration, read through comments on student evaluations and note any comments pertaining to your passion or enthusiasm for teaching or learning. Similarly, consider sharing past cornerstone moments when you were awakened to the impact of your teaching. Finesse, Structure, and Style Do you have a quote or two from someone who has inspired you as a teacher? A quote that represents your overall philosophy and approach to teaching is a nice way to draw your reader in and introduce what follows. As you write, be crystal clear in your communication of your values and in-classroom teaching and learning experience. Regardless of your discipline, an organized and clearly defined teaching philosophy represents an organized and clear teacher. Keep clear of comments such as a desire to “help people” and “be the change they want to see in the world.” Although this can absolutely be true for anyone, using clichés like this can make your philosophy seem trite and generic. What Learners Need to Be Successful Explain what you consider necessary to support learner success in general with highlights of how you approach (or plan to approach) these considerations in your courses. This could include topics like a clear course structure and expectations, knowing what is coming up, time and space to use many methods to develop discipline knowledge and critical-thinking skills, and real-world examples linked to student interest in the course. Basic needs such as a safe, secure place to learn and food are also important here (Maslow, 1987). In fact, you may have encountered students who needed support in these areas, reaffirming your understanding of the importance of your role as educator and resource. There are an increasing number of excellent resources pertaining to how people learn that may be helpful (e.g., Eyler, 2018; Zakrajsek, 2022). Goals for Student Learning Most faculty, regardless of discipline or courses that they teach, are looking to guide the development of literacy, research, critical-thinking, problem-solving, teamwork, and refined communication skills for the workplace. Review the learning objectives and assessment strategies you include in your syllabi. Ask yourself, what do you expect students to take away from the courses you typically teach? Which of those outcomes are common to every course? Those are the ones to focus on here in this short document. Do not list every course’s outcomes and assessment in your teaching philosophy, but do use that information to help inform what you write. Learning Activities for Student Success This is a great place to include the structure of a typical class that you teach. Do you open with a plan for the session? Do you begin with a small teaching technique (Lang, 2021), such as an inspiring quote or some music that pertains to the topic of the day as students file in to immediately engage them in the content? Do you interweave different types of learning activities at different points during the class, and if so when and why? If an institution is interested in hiring you, would they be able to read this section and build a solid image of you in the classroom? Assessment How will you know what your students learned from each class session and the course overall? Assessment, done well, can help the student to assess whether they have met the learning objectives and simultaneously help you assess whether you had the desired positive impact on their learning. Assessment breaks into two main types; formative assessment, which is designed to inform and improve, and summative assessment, which is critical evaluation of whether a student has at that point in time met the relevant learning objective. Assessment—again, done well—will also help demonstrate your teaching effectiveness. Proof of your use of evidence-based activities, through student evaluations or DWF rates, helps support your and your students’ achievements. Conclusion What is offered here is not a prescriptive “how-to” guide or a strict framework for you to plug in your answers. Your teaching philosophy statement should read as though someone could open the curtains of the window into your beliefs regarding education and peer into your classroom to observe you in the act of teaching. Take advantage of this regular opportunity to reflect on and renew your teaching and your sense of self as an educator. Discussion Questions What aspects of your teaching would you consider to be most likely to change in the next few years? To what extent does assessment define your approach to teaching? Does your approach to assessment, both formative and summative, align with common strategies in higher education or do you take a more novel approach in some aspect of your assessment strategies? Reach out to a colleague who is newer to the field than you, and one who is more experienced. Share your teaching philosophy statements with them and ask for their impression of your teaching based on your statement. To what extent is their impression aligned with what you perceive to be your approach to teaching? References Eyler, J. (2018). How humans learn: The science and stories behind effective college teaching. West Virginia University Press. Caukin, N. G., & Brinthaupt, T. M. (2017). Using a teaching philosophy statement as a professional development tool for teacher candidates. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2017.110218 Lang, J. (2021). Small teaching: Everyday lessons from the science of learning. Jossey-Bass. Maslow, A. H. (1987). Motivation and personality (3rd ed.). Pearson Education. Zakrajsek, T. D. (2022). The new science of learning: How to learn in harmony with your brain (3rd ed.). Stylus. Additional Resources Teaching Philosophy & Statements. (n.d). University of Michigan Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. https://crlt.umich.edu/resources- publications/teaching-philosophies-statements
Flipped Classrooms: A Next Generation Nursing Case Study
Ann Marie Welsh, Doctoral Student, Gwynedd Mercy University
Key Statement: Flipping case studies lets students practice critical thinking in real-world scenarios while also imparting knowledge required for licensure. Keywords: Critical Thinking, Applied Health, Case Study, Clinical Judgment Introduction There is an increased demand for new registered nurses (RNs) to make complex decisions (NCSBN, 2022). There is also an increase in nurses’ involvement in patient errors due to the new nurses’ limited critical thinking skills (Ignatavicius, 2021). To address this disconnect, nursing graduates’ decision-making and clinical judgment will be assessed through new questions posed in the Next Generation National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses, an updated version of the test that nursing students are required to pass before beginning work in the nursing field (NCSBN, 2022). Nursing faculty are pressured to prepare their students for this new NCLEX. To meet this challenge, I researched ways to increase critical thinking among my nursing students, as a student myself in an EdD program on Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. “An adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experience, which is a rich resource for learning” (Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 47). This is just one assumption about the adult learner proposed by Knowles (1980). This assumption speaks to the core of many students in higher education. Educators often call on their students to share their experiences and grow from them. By introducing clinical judgment into the classroom, for example through case studies, educators can help their students improve critical thinking in general, and specifically by recognizing cues and prioritizing interventions (Ignatavicius, 2021). To foster this assumption, I implemented a flipped-classroom approach to a case study in a pediatric nursing class. Photo by National Cancer Institute Empirical Literature Al-Samarraie et al. (2019) defined flipped classrooms as increasing regular student engagement in course material with marginal involvement from the instructor. In a flipped classroom model, students are expected to take the lead in their learning during pre-class, in-class, and post-class work (Al-Samarraie et al., 2019). Students gain increased knowledge through each phase and improve communication and reflection. During the pre-class work, the students engage in the materials given to them by the instructor. Students are given activities, such as discussion, group presentations, case studies, etc. during the in-class phase. During the post-class phase, students are provided with quizzes or assignments to fill in the gaps from the previous phases (Al-Samarraie et al., 2019). Rathner and Schier (2020) studied the impact of flipped classroom andragogy on student assessment performance and perceptions of learning. Higher assessment scores were observed for these students, but student perceptions were mixed. Many students suggested that the flipped classroom approach was interesting and motivating. Other students disliked this approach to learning and called it a “lazy excuse for teaching” (Rathner & Schier, 2020, p. 88). The authors concluded that the flipped classroom approach could have an impact on student learning if the students are invested in this approach; one student reported that they excelled because they were ready and motivated to learn. (Rathner & Scheir, 2020). Flipped classrooms promote autonomy to help students develop their self-concept. The Process Students in this nursing case study were most familiar with lecture as a teaching style, but I wanted to incorporate active learning while honoring all styles of learning, as much as possible. I recorded the pediatric respiratory lecture and assigned this as the preparatory work before the live in-person class. Students were also required to complete a five-question pre-class quiz on the topics covered. This assignment was due the evening before the live class. I reviewed the results to determine which areas required clarification before completing the class activity. Based on the results of the pre-lecture quiz, the class reviewed the manifestations of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient as a full class. The students also had a chance to ask questions to clarify the different growth and developmental stages for pediatric patients. After the students verbalized understanding of these areas, students were divided into six groups. The students then completed the NGN evolving case study on pediatric respiratory disorders and were asked NGN-style questions throughout the case study, reporting out to the whole class. The students were able to expand on the questions posed by explaining the specific disease processes, medications, and nursing interventions that were also covered during the pre-class work. Each group was given the opportunity to participate because every group was called on. Critical thinking requires an individual to monitor the reasonableness of thinking, correct one’s incorrect decisions, and reflect on the experience (Merriam & Bierema, 2014). It was an invaluable experience watching the students think critically and form sound clinical judgments by practicing with the NGN case study, rather than listening to a lecture on the topic. At the conclusion of the case study, the students were given the opportunity to reflect on their learning and share examples from practice. To assess the effectiveness of this strategy, students completed a post-class five-question quiz. The content was also tested on a course assessment one week later. The results on the quiz and assessment supported that learning had taken place. Strengths and Challenges Although a few students verbalized that they preferred to learn through lectures, the majority expressed that they were ready to learn and succeed in the flipped format. They embraced the NGN case study. Many reported that they appreciated the format because they could process the information and make sound clinical judgments. It was evident that many of the students were motivated and driven to do well in this class to feel confident for the upcoming exam. This relates to the assumption of adult learning that “adults are mostly driven by internal motivation, rather than external motivators” (Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 47). Yes, they want to do well in the course but are ultimately internally motivated to become successful registered nurses. I also explained at the beginning of class that this case study included “need to know” information for the NCLEX and clinical practice, and that the format was designed to help them feel confident synthesizing and using the material. “Adults need to know the reason for learning something” (Merriam & Bierema, 2014, p. 47), so this explanation increased engagement. Another strength of this activity was that the students were divided into groups. This gave every student the chance to participate in lower pressure environments than speaking in front of the whole class, and allowed more processing time. It was interesting to see the students bounce ideas off one another. While this presentation had many strengths related to andragogy, there were also areas for improvement. During group discussion, the case study was presented on PowerPoint. This is not ideal for accessibility, because the font was quite small to accommodate the information and mirror how the NCLEX will appear. Sharing the information digitally, like with a QR code, might help improve accessibility (Galindo-Dominguez, 2021), retention, and increase time spent discussing, rather than lecturing. While many students were autonomous in their preparatory work, many still preferred a lecture style. Some remained quiet during the activity. This could have been because they didn’t prepare or were shy. Ensuring that the pre-class quiz counted for some credit and offering other strategies besides discussion, like buzzers, might be effective steps in the future. Recommendations The flipped classroom approach worked well in this nursing education case study, and it can certainly be applied to other courses in higher education. The goal of this approach is the same for all students: for the students to leave class feeling more confident and empowered to succeed in their field by offering a structured opportunity to practice skills in class, rather than isolated before or after the session. With any change, there may be a level of anxiety for educators. I hope that by sharing my example, I am adding to the community of resources for my peers. Discussion Questions What teaching strategies have you implemented to improve critical thinking in your students? Has the flipped classroom been beneficial to your students? If you have not tried it yet, could you start small by flipping one session, or part of one session? How have you already incorporated adult learning theories shared here into your teaching of higher education courses? If you have not, could you choose one to try? References Al-Samarraie, H., Shamsuddin, A., & Alzahrani, A. I. (2019). A flipped classroom model in higher education: A review of the evidence across disciplines. Educational Technology Research & Development, 68(3), 1017–1051. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09718-8
Galindo-Dominguez, H. (2021). Flipped classroom in the educational system: Trend or effective pedagogical model compared to other methodologies? Educational Technology & Society, 24(3), 44–60. https://www.jstor.org/stable/27032855 Ignatavicius, D. D. (2021). Preparing for the new nursing licensure exam: The next- generation NCLEX. Nursing, 51(5), 34–42. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.NURSE.0000743100.95536.9b Merriam, S. B., & Bierema, L. L. (2014). Adult learning: Linking theory and practice. Jossey-Bass. NCSBN. (2022). Next generation NCLEX project. https://www.ncsbn.org/exams/next-generation-nclex.page Rathner, J. A., & Schier, M. A. (2020). The impact of flipped classroom andragogy on student assessment performance and perception of learning experience in two advanced physiology subjects. Advances in Physiology Education, 44(1), 80–92. https://doi.org/ 10.1152/advan.00125.2019
Breaking Bread in Communities of Learners
Tanden Brekke, University of St. Thomas Robin R. Bell, University of Northwestern St. Paul Vivian Johnson, Hamline University Key Statement: This article reports on a relationship between two social justice professors who shared stories of battle fatigue and, in doing so, supported each other in avoiding burnout. Keywords: social justice education, communities of learners, teaching fatigue Introduction Dr. Robin Bell and Dr. Tanden Brekke both work in higher education and teach in the area of social justice and equity. They recognize that a critical issue in doing this work is avoiding burnout. This article highlights the value of metacognition and reflecting on one’s teaching practice to create an inclusive participatory classroom. Unfortunately, burnout is frequent in this work when confronted with faculty and learner pushback. To support faculty in any discipline to survive this inevitable pushback and avoid burning out, they recommend developing a long-term, transformational relationship with a peer (a Table of Fellowship). Here they deconstruct and reconstruct how their Table of Fellowship developed and supported them so others can learn from and adapt their experience. The writers stress the importance of creating a Table of Fellowship for faculty in all disciplines interested in infusing social justice and equity into their curriculum/classrooms. A Table of Fellowship Robin: The journey of becoming a professor in higher education culture without sacrificing my cultural knowledge and identity is an issue that is not going away. I grappled with this paradox while earning my doctorate in education, focusing on teacher myths about education, teaching, learning, and identity formation of teachers and learners (Ladson-Billings, 2001). After an invitation from my dissertation chairperson and friend, I committed to exploring my teaching practice by intentionally structuring my classroom as a learning community based on Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon’s (2009) idea of a community is where learners are viewed as participants and leaders that aligns with our idea of a Table of Fellowship. Chris Watkins (2005) also encourages structuring classrooms as a community of learners, rather than a classroom built with white supremacy tools or tools of masters’ colonial house. This was not a solo adventure. Photo by Wesual Click on Unsplash Tanden: My teaching comes from a place of authenticity and self-awareness. Through a Table of Fellowship, I have become self-aware of how oppressive systems have shaped my identity and what my healing journey can look like. In addition, I have several relationships similar to my relationship with Robin, which have taught me how vital and life-giving these relationships are for me. This article describes my relationship with Robin. A Table of Fellowship: The Long Haul of the Messy Daily Ritual of Cooking and Cleaning Tanden: Writing this article in 2021–2022, Robin and I have known each other for 14 years. I reached out to Robin because he has a different lived experience from mine that could teach me. Furthermore, I desired to learn from his wisdom. For the last few years, we have met every couple of months to share stories, encourage each other, and develop our pedagogical practices. Our meetings usually occur at a coffee shop, Robin’s place, or a park. A couple of years ago, I asked Robin to meet more regularly as I needed a colleague doing similar work to support and encourage me. As I reflect on our relationship, two key ingredients exist. First, we are honest with each other. We say what we need to say the way we need to say it. At times Robin has shared hard truths about white people. I had to hear these truths and reflect on how they have played out in my life. This required me to develop the capacity to say what I am really thinking and feeling, unlike what happens many times when white people enter into relationships with people of color. As Feagin (2020) has documented, white people have front-stage and backstage conversations about race. The front-stage conversations are politically correct, well crafted, and deemed to be safe. With Robin, I have backstage conversations without self-editing, being my true self, and acknowledging what is happening within me. Secondly, we have built a trusting relationship. The honesty between us has led to a relationship in which we trust each other with some of the most important and intimate parts of ourselves. Over time it was apparent that I could share the messy, mixed-up, confusing parts of myself, and amazingly Robin continued to embrace our fellowship. His trust has taught me that my desire to “prove myself to be one of the good white people” is an internal need, not an external demand from Robin. Even with my faults, limitations, and brokenness, Robin is not leaving. This trust has allowed us to explore our lives’ deep, complex realities. Robin: Reflecting back, I resisted engaging in dialogue with Tanden, a white guy who I had no reason to trust. But when he invited me to “set the table,” I changed my mind and followed the advice of Jerome Bruner (1996) to view our dialogue as “an opportunity to explore and apply how and what makes it possible and fulfilling for human beings to live together, even with personal sacrifice” (p. 32). Initially, I was going to make it uncomfortable for Tanden to dialogue with me, but he kept showing up and ruptured my world. For me, Tanden represented a counternarrative, someone not interested in playing the role of overseer and not engaging in a transactional relationship. Our Table of Fellowship provided us with a space for how I could unlearn my white social conditioning and reimagine our theoretical framework based on fugitive pedagogy (Givens, 2021) and being an abolitionist teacher (Kaba, 2021). As teachers, the essential questions for us were: How do you teach within a learning community? What communication practices invite learners, who are reluctant to engage with you and your worldview, to participate in a Table of Fellowship? Asking these questions is hard and exhausting work and without our Table of Fellowship could have pushed us to burn out. But our Table of Fellowship created a safe space to ask these questions, rest from the grind of doing social justice and equity work, and recharge with each other’s encouragement. Vivian [Third-Party, Reflection]: Both Robin and Tanden are clear that their work is hard. Their advice for readers wanting to engage in authentic conversations regarding social justice and equity using the Table of Fellowship is to find a supportive community. In addition to increasing their understanding of themselves, Robin and Tanden explored the intersection of their evolving identities with their views of teaching and learning. Robin: Together, we explored how to infuse our classroom cultures with pedagogies that can transform learning from teacher-centered information transmission to a focus on personal, interpersonal, and communication processes (Wertsch et al., 1995); in other words, pedagogies that Wetsch et al. (1995) argue foster learner transformation. Robin and Tanden: To create classrooms that foster learner transformation and provide a space for instructors to heal and grow, we advise developing a Table of Fellowship (see Box 1). Finding others willing to get in the “messy kitchen” allows for sharing ideas, lending a shoulder to cry on when things are tough, and reminding us that nurturing an environment that facilitates a Table of Fellowship is worth it. Doing this messy internal and external work requires others, people that you trust and who are willing to get dirty together. For us, the African proverb, “If you want to run fast, run alone. If you want to run far, run together” is true when creating these kinds of learning environments. Conclusion Based on our ongoing dialogues, we have built a Table of Fellowship to allow refuge and recovery from burnout while trying to build classroom learning environments that support social justice and equity. We encourage faculty to use the stories and resources here to build their own Table of Fellowships and prepare for classroom transformations. Further discussion on how to effect this transformation will address suggestions for altering the physical environment, the role of changing classroom language and expectations, and the role of narrative in teaching. Discussion Questions Who can you or are you having a Table of Fellowship with? How can you deepen these relationships? What internal work do you need to do to develop a Table of Fellowship with your colleagues? What structures around you limit/strengthen your ability to participate in a Table of Fellowship? What can you do to change/reinforce those structures? References Bruner, J. (1996). The culture of education. Harvard Press. Feagin, J. R. (2020). The white racial frame: Centuries of racial framing and counter-framing (3rd ed.). Routledge. Givens, J. (2021). Fugitive pedagogy: Carter G. Woodson and the art of Black teaching. Harvard University Press. Haroutunian-Gordon, S. (2009). Learning to teach through discussion: The art of turning the soul. Yale University Press. Kaba, M. (2021). We do this 'til we free us: Abolitionist organizing and transforming justice. Haymarket Books. Ladson-Billings, G. (2001). Crossing over to Canaan: The journey of new teachers in diverse classrooms. Jossey-Bass. Watkins, C. (2005). Classrooms as learning communities. Routledge. Wertsch, J. V., Del Rio, P., & Alvarez, A. (1995). Sociocultural studies of the mind. Harvard Press. About the Authors
ChatGPT: Educational Friend or Foe?
By Todd Zakrajsek, Director ITLC-Lilly Conferences on Evidence-Based Teaching Key Statement: ChatGPT is a potential game-changer in an ever-changing educational space. Keywords: Evolving Technology, Artificial Intelligence, Student Learning, Assessment What Is ChatGPT? ChatGPT has caused quite a stir in education, and for good reason. For those of you who have not yet heard of ChatGPT, it’s simple enough; you ask a question and ChatGPT responds. Ask ChatGPT to write a paragraph about metacognition, solve a math problem, or summarize a book chapter, and it scours the web and responds to your request. That is not much different from what most have come to expect and accept from Siri, Alexa, and Google. Where this new technology gets interesting is that you can ask ChatGPT to write a poem using specific elements and format requirements you provide, solve story problems, or write a paper. Yes, you can ask ChatGPT to write you an original paper about metacognition, with in-text citations and a reference section if you prefer. You can take a look at the first draft and ask ChatGPT to elaborate on a given section or add something that was previously excluded. The really interesting thing is that this AI does a pretty good job, and the material is newly “authored” material. This is a game changer, but it need not cause a panic. Actually, quite the contrary. Photo by Jonathan Kemper Admitting Concerns, not Defeat Concerns regarding learning and knowledge at the hands of technology have always existed. A few thousand years ago, Socrates (469–399 BCE) argued that writing things down would weaken the mind. It is a good thing that his student Plato wrote that down. Just a few hundred years ago, Samuel Johnson predicted that with the ready availability of books, teachers would no longer be necessary (Boswell, 1791/1904). He reasoned that information previously inaccessible to the average person could be read by anyone buying a book on the topic, thereby negating the need for educators. But faculty were not replaced; they found a way to use books to enhance learning. Not that long ago, the internet burst onto the scene. Given that information previously inaccessible to the average person could be quickly acquired through a personal computer, many reasoned it would negate the need for educators. But faculty were not replaced; they found ways to use the internet to enhance learning. In 1997, Deep Blue beat a world champion chess player (Chess.com, 2018), and Watson beat Ken Jennings in 2011 (Markoff, 2011). But people still play chess. In the past decade, Salman Khan launched a series of instructional videos, and YouTube became a universal “go to” for, well, just about anything that needs to be learned. Educational tools now help students in ways that were inconceivable just a few years ago. At this moment, students take courses while sitting in their living room, and those in virtual and face-to-face classrooms have laptops and smart devices that allow them to fact-check faculty as they teach. With each development, faculty find ways to leverage new technology to enhance learning. Yes, ChatGPT is going to make us rethink higher education in many ways, but so have the advances noted above, and so many others. We have to acknowledge that these technologies have made it easier and easier for students to engage in academic dishonesty. ChatGPT has, on the surface, done nothing more than make it easier and less expensive for a student to turn in a paper they didn’t write. The point is that if a dishonest student intends to turn in a paper they didn’t write, they have long had options. To address these worries, I asked ChatGPT what concerns faculty may have with ChatGPT. It responded: Faculty members may be concerned about ChatGPT or other AI language models for various reasons, including: Accuracy and bias: AI models may not always produce accurate or unbiased information, which could impact the quality of education and research. Ethical considerations: There may be ethical concerns around the use of AI in education and research, such as privacy and the potential for AI to reinforce existing biases and discrimination. Job displacement: Some faculty members may be concerned about the potential for AI to replace human teachers or researchers, leading to job loss and decreased job security. Quality control: Faculty members may be concerned about the need to constantly monitor the output of AI models to ensure accuracy and ethical compliance. Overall, faculty members may have concerns about ChatGPT and other AI models because they want to ensure the quality and integrity of education and research, and to avoid potential negative consequences. Not a terrible answer, and I found it amusing that the AI said “human teachers.” Yes, there are legitimate concerns based on our current traditional educational setup, but the good news, to me, is that we are getting closer to abandoning the stale model of education in which students are required to document passing courses by doing well on one or a few high-stakes assignments. That places pressure on students to score well rather than learn to write better. Students rarely cheat on low-stakes assignments, drafts of papers, and classroom engagement. They could, but there is no value in doing so. The focus in those cases is on learning and, given that assumption, cheating actually hinders the process. Our task, then, is to figure out how to use ChatGPT (and similar systems that will follow) to enhance student learning. As instructors, we have done this for as long as our jobs have been to educate learners. The ready availability of books turned out to be quite beneficial, and I cannot imagine teaching at present without the internet. I am convinced that in a few years we will have a hard time imagining how faculty taught without computer-generated text and solutions to problems. Here are some areas where I think ChatGPT might help students become better writers: Those who struggle starting with a blank screen can have a computer generate the first paragraph to get rolling. How many brilliant authors might have produced more had the “blank screen” issue not existed? Students can use a program to pull a few sources to get a sense of an area and write from that point. Individuals can get unique solutions to problems and have a better sense of how to solve similar problems in the future. Writing bots can create text as teaching tools to discuss the difference between machine- and human-generated art. I went back to ChatGPT to get its take on possible benefits. Many suggestions were about providing feedback to students to improve their writing. One of my favorite suggestions was: ChatGPT can be used to enhance writing instruction by offering writing prompts and generating sample writing pieces to serve as examples for students. By working with ChatGPT, students can also become familiar with the language and terminology used in writing, which can help them to develop a stronger understanding of the writing process. Summary Let’s consider this an opportunity to enhance learning through an amazing new technology. In my lifetime alone, I have heard that using a calculator would keep students from learning math, computers would make students lazy writers, the internet would make people lazy thinkers, Khan Academy and YouTube would teach students incorrectly, and Zoom would prohibit students from feeling part of a community. Yes, these concerns can happen and, sadly, sometimes do. But just as easily, each of the items noted has allowed for more inclusion, provided more equity, and advanced learning. We have an amazing new technology that holds great opportunities. Our job, as it has been so many times in the past, is to figure out how to use this technology to advance learning. Discussion Questions What technologies have you encountered that required you to rethink your teaching practices? To what extent have those technologies enhanced learning? Based on the ChatGPT excerpts shown here, how might students be helped to use, and not abuse, this new tool? Give ChatGPT a try. Ask it a question you might normally ask your students. Don’t focus solely on the correctness of the response, but rather how you might incorporate it into one of your current practices. References Boswell, J. (1791/1904). Life of Samuel Johnson. Henry Frowde. Chess.com. (2018. October 12). Kasparov vs. Deep Blue: The match that changed history. Author. https://www.chess.com/article/view/deep-blue-kasparov-chess Markoff, J. (2011, Feburary 16). Computer wins on ‘Jeopardy!’: Trivial, it’s not. New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/science/17jeopardy-watson.html About the Author